survey of the botanical and geographical distribution of cardiac glycosides by Albert Eugene Chaiet

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Published in Toronto .

Written in English

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  • Cardiac glycosides

Edition Notes

Book details

Other titlesThe botanical and geographical distribution of cardiac glycosides
ContributionsToronto, Ont. University. Theses (B.Sc.Phm.)
The Physical Object
Pagination[65 leaves]
Number of Pages65
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19473172M

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Survey of cardiac glycosides and genins. [Charleston] Univ. of South Carolina Press, (OCoLC) Online version: Hoch, J. Hampton (John Hampton), Survey of cardiac glycosides and genins. [Charleston] Univ.

of South Carolina Press, (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: J Hampton Hoch. Cardiac glycosides occur in small amounts in the seeds, leaves, stems, roots, and bark of plants of wide geographical distribution.

Many species grow in tropical regions and have been employed, in the past, by natives of Africa, Asia, and South America for preparation of arrow poisons. In plants, cardenolides appear to be confined to the Cited by: 6. Research on glycoside kinetics has progressed at a rapid pace, requiring continuing reevaluation of the state of our understanding of this problem.

The present article focuses on the effect of disease states (renal, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and cardiac) on the absorption, distribution, and clearance of a number of digitalis glycosides. The present article focuses on the effect of disease states (renal, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and cardiac) on the absorption, distribution, and clearance of a number of digitalis glycosides.

Evidence is critically reviewed, and interpreted with respect to possible clinical implications. Open Access book publisher. Keywords: cardiac glycosides, distribution in nature, structure features, structure elu of wide geographical distribution.

Cardiac glycosides have almost certainly evolved as a defence, against herbivores in plants and against predators in animals (Agrawal et al., ). In Crassulaceae, bufadienolides are restricted to subfamily Kalanchooideae, a clade for which this class of compounds is a. Cardiac glycosides and total phenols in Securigera securidaca suspension culture 27 Cells extraction The cells were separated from supernatant in each generation of suspension culture and dried at room temperature.

Each sample was dried, powdered and extracted by 80% methanol for 24 h. The marc was macerated as above once more. Cardiac glycosides inhibit the sodium pump in its phosphorylated form (Blaustein, ). The binding site for cardiac glycosides (and endogenous inhibitors of sodium transport; Chapters 2 and 6) is on the external surface of the α subunit of Na–K ATPase, as is that for potassium (Lingrel et al., ).

Whether the latter is the same site. Cardiac glycosides are composed of two structural features: the sugar (glycoside) and the non-sugar (aglycone - steroid) moieties. (figure below) The R group at the position defines the class of cardiac glycoside.

Two classes have been observed in Nature - the. Cardiac glycosides are drugs that inhibit the Na + /K + - ATPase found on the outer cell surface. Digoxin is the only drug of this class that is commonly used in clinical settings. The main indications for digoxin treatment are atrial fibrillation and heart failure in treatment-resistant cases.

Because cardiac glycosides have a narrow therapeutic index, close monitoring of serum. The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar and an R group. The steroid nucleus consists of four fused rings to which other functional groups such as methyl, hydroxyl, and aldehyde groups can be attached to influence the overall molecule's biological activity.

Cardiac glycosides also vary in the groups attached at either end of the steroid. Glycosides. Glycosides are compounds of sugar bonded to non carbohydrate group, they are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac example of glycosides is salicin (9).

These glycosides are found as secondary metabolites in several plants, and also in some insects (Kaisal et al., ). cal distribution is irregular, as is the distribution of other important plant medicines.

For example, Table 1 Botanical sources andmajor chemical components ofcardiacglycosides ofclinical importance A survey of cardiac glycosides and genins. Charleston: University ofSouth Carolina Press, The local use and phytochemical analyses of plants used for the treatments of some children's diseases were conducted in Ojo local government in Lagos state, the area is predominantly of Awori stock.

The information was gathered via unstructured questionnaires; the information gathered was used to prepare decoctions with liquid remains of processed grind maize (Omi Idun) for the treatment of.

Introduction 3 Digoxin inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase, an enzyme that regulates the quantity of sodium and potassium inside cells. Inhibition of the enzyme leads to an increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium and thus (by stimulation of Na+/Ca2+ exchange) to an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium (Fig.

3); in other words, intracellular Ca2+. ATPase. The enzyme is the only receptor for the cardiac glycosides and is responsible for the active extrusion of the intercellular Na+ in exchange for extracellular K+(1).

Distribution in Nature Cardiac glycosides occur in small amounts in the seeds, leaves, stems, roots and bark of plants of wide geographical distribution.

4. glycosides Full notes for presentation and examination pharmacognosy 1. 4)GLYCOSIDES BY BILAL MALIK Glycosides A glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via glycosidic bond. A glycosidic bond is a certain type of chemical bond that joins a sugar molecule to another molecule.

A substance containing a. Glycoside, any of a wide variety of naturally occurring substances in which a carbohydrate portion, consisting of one or more sugars or a uronic acid (i.e., a sugar acid), is combined with a hydroxy compound.

The hydroxy compound, usually a non-sugar entity (aglycon), such as a derivative of. Other articles where Cardiac glycoside is discussed: cardiovascular drug: Contractions: The cardiac glycosides, substances that occur in the leaves of the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and other plants, are the most important group of inotropic agents.

Although they have been used for many purposes throughout history, the effectiveness of cardiac glycosides in heart disease was established in.

Action of cardiac glycosides - Inhibits sodium-potassium pump, resulting in increased intracellular sodium - Causes influx of calcium - cardiac muscles contract more efficiently. Three effects of digitalis preparations on heart muscle.

Positive inotropic action (increased myocardial stroke volume) 2. Negative chronotropic action (decreased HR). Botanical Description of Napoleonaea Species. Taxonomy of Napoleonaea Species. Origin and geographical distribution. Medicinal uses. Phytochemical Constituents of Napoleonaea species chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids, triterpenes.

Cardiac glycosides. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Book Reviews Cardiac glycosidesedited by K. GREEF. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, Volume Part 1. Experimental pharmacology of cardiac glyc Download PDF. KB Sizes 4 Downloads.

Cardiac glycoside toxicity is caused by consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants. These include 11 different plant families which include Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Celastraceae, Brassicaceae Lilaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae.

Within the 11 plant families, there are a handful of plants that are most likely to be the. Cardioactive glycosides In general cardioactive glycosides improve the efficiency of the heart muscle without increasing its need for oxygen. This enables the heart to pump adequate amounts of blood around the body and ensures that no fluid builds up in the lungs or extremities.

These powerful and fascinating constituents are found in various medicinal plants. Objectives. Caralluma is a xerophytic genus used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, leprosy, obesity and rheumatism.

Objectives of this review are to establish a relationship between traditional uses and scientific studies by critically evaluating the available fragmented literature on ethnobotany, pharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicology of genus Caralluma. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides are found in a number of plants, including called digitalis glycosides, this group of drugs inhibits the sodium-potassium pump, resulting in an increase in intracellular sodium.

This increase leads to an influx of calcium, causing the cardiac muscle fibers to contract more efficiently. Digitalis preparations have three effects on heart. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex (eIF4F) is a potential chemotherapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).

This complex regulates cap-dependent translational initiation and consists of three core proteins: eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A1.

In this study, we focus on repositioning compounds as novel inhibitors of eIF4A1-mediated translation. In this review th e systematic position, vernacula r names, vegetative ch aracters, Ecology and distribution, phytochemistry and the economical values of the Calotropis gigantea are discuss ed.

CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES What are cardiac glycosides. They are a type of glycosides that act on the heart muscle, regulating its beat and increasing its power, so they are used to treat heart failure or rhythm problems. Used in inappropriate doses are very dangerous because they speed the heart rate causing tachycardia, and other negative effects on the digestive system, nervous system.

When we talk about cardiac glycosides, we are mainly referring to your heart’s vascular perfusion. Now, when remembering the different types of cardiac glycosides, you have to remember this: I Know. Sax 5 th Avenue. This mnemonic will help you easily recall crucial details of our cardiac glycoside review.

compounds, cardiac glycosides may also be produced via the cho-lesterol pathway in animal tissues. Functioning as mammalian hormones (Schoner, ), they are often structurally identical to those found in plants, demonstrating high amounts of conver-gent evolution.

In Digitalis, cardenolides can be interconverted between the. The book shows the impressive economic importance of these resources and their potential both for local markets and as export product. The availability of a more economical paperback edition, for distribution only in developing countries is a laudable undertaking which should serve as.

1. Med Klin. Apr 16;66(16) [The pharmacology of cardiac glycosides]. [Article in German] Noack E. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].

About this book. This new edition of Volume 2 of this series commences with an overview of the biochemistry, physiology, functions and utilisation of plant secondary metabolites, followed by detailed surveys of alkaloids and betalains, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates and non-protein amino acids, phenyl propanoids and related compounds, and terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes.

Cyanophore Glycosides Upon hydrolysis these glycosides produce “Hydrocyanic acid” i.e. HCN Wild cherry Botanical origin: Prunus serotina Family: Rosaceae Part used: Dried bark Collection: Bark is collected in autumn and sun dried.

Drug is almost odorless when dried but attains strong odor of benzaldehyde after moisturizing. A Survey of Large Ranches and Prairie Remnants in the Flint Hills and Central Tall Grass Prairie Ecoregion of Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey Open-file Report, No. Kindscher, K., Mehaffey, M., Fraser, A., & Pogge, E.

Kansas Department of Transportation Wetland Mitigation Sites—Analysis and Opportunity for Improving Success.

Cardiac glycoside: the parent group of compounds, including both cardenolides and bufadienolides, typically containing structural groups derived from sugars. Pregnane: steroids with four fused rings and carbons present at positions 1–21 and potential precursors to cardenolides.

Pregnane glycosides occur alongside cardenolides in many Apocynaceae. Edited by S Gorog, Pharma Book Syndicate,Reprint, xii, p, tables, figs, ISBN:$ (Includes free airmail shipping). Apart from cancer treatment cardiac glycosides have been used to treat cardiac disorders like heart failure and atrial arrhythmia, where they act by inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase.

The clinical trials indicate that the administration of the cardiac glycosides, digoxin along with chemotherapy had a positive impact on overall survival in cohorts of. Cardiac glycosides interact with many other drugs, so be vigilant in observing for drug–drug in-teractions.

Caution must be used when administering nephrotoxic drugs with digoxin, due to the potential for a rapid buildup of digoxin in the blood. Assessment Potential Nursing Diagnoses.

Senna alata is a medicinal herb of Leguminosae family. It is distributed in the tropical and humid regions. The plant is traditionally used in the treatment of typhoid, diabetes, malaria, asthma, ringworms, tinea infections, scabies, blotch, herpes, and eczema.

The review is aimed at unveiling the ethnobotanical description and pharmacological activities of S. alata. Different parts of.In his book on cardiac glycosides, Hoch () states that “an arrangement of cardiac glycosides in the order of their relative toxicities would not be the same for different animal species.” Here, we show in a detailed mechanistic way, that structurally different cardiac glycosides can affect specific animal Na + /K + -ATPases in highly.

The users were primarily male (%), and primarily between 40 and 59 years of age (%). Compliance to the tool was %, essentially all of those who accessed Dress-COV completed the survey and submitted their information.

The geographical distribution of the Dress-COV Italian users is shown in Figure 4.

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